MOLD: What are the 5 MOST TOXIC TYPES of MOLD?

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What are the 5 MOST TOXIC TYPES of MOLD?

 The following molds are capable of Mycotoxin Production:



 ascospores in each ascus. Image of Ascospores of Compare the size of ascospores ascospores.jpeg 

  Ascospores may also be moved (Acremonium) ascospores with released ascospores;

Ascospores are prominent in nature commonly found in the outdoor environment. Some fungi that belong to the Ascomycete family include the sexual forms of Penicillium/Aspergillus, Chaetominum, etc that may be frequently found growing on damp substrates.



Copy of Health Effects Chaetomium Mold & Asbestos Facts - Mold of Chaetomium are covered Chaetomium sp images Chaetomium mold picture and An infestation of Chaetomium

A vast amount of medical news has been downplayed regarding Chaetomium in the past.

 Chaetomiumspp. are among the fungi causing infections wholly refered to as Phaeohyphomycosis.

Fatal deep mycoses due to Chaetomium Atrobrunneum have been documented.

Brain abscess, peritonitis, cutaneous lesions and Onychomycosis may also develop due to exposure.






Unlike most other mold pathogens, there is medical evidence to suggest that people who are exposed to Chaetomium may be predisposed to permanent neurological damage of the myelin sheath. Therefore, a noticeably high incidence of autoimmune diseases have been linked to exposure of this mold such as Multiple Sclerosis, Lupus, etc. It has also been linked to certain forms of Cancer.

As with other fungal exposure, it can also cause permanent DNA damage. This has been documented in several cases being researched during studies. Chaetomium is the only mold that inhibits cell replication.

Chaetomium are found on a variety of substrates containing cellulose including paper and plant compost. Several species have been reported to play a major role in the decomposition of cellulose-made materials. These fungi are able to dissolve the cellulose fibers in cotton and paper and thus cause the materials to disintegrate. The process is especially rapid under moist conditions.

This fungus is reported to be allergenic and a toxin.

On a scale of worst to more mild in effects on human health, contrary to what many believe; Chaetomium would be second or possibly third to Aspergillus only to Stachybotrys

Their Ascospores are brown or gray-olivaceous with one or two germ pores.




Fusarium sp. requires very wet 2) The Fusarium comparative Pumpkin Alternaria & Fusarium 2) The Fusarium comparative Fusarium solani

Fusarium Fusarium roseum and other Fusarium graminearum

Fusarium is a hydrophilic mold that requires very wet conditions and is frequently isolated from plants and grains. They colonize in continuously damp materials such as damp wallboard and water reservoirs for humidifiers and drip pans.

While Fusarium Keratitis can be a serious infection, it is a rare disease.

 Fusarium is commonly found in organic matter such as soil and plants. This infection cannot be transmitted from person to person.

 People who have trauma to the eye, certain eye diseases and problems with their immune system may be at increased risk for these types of infection



Penicillium mold garden Penicillium mold in a Petri Penicillium Mold - magnified a Penicillium mold growing Left: Penicillium mold growth INFINITY3-1 Penicillium Mold

Aspergillus or aspergillius. High moisture is the major Aspergillius fumigatus aspergillius.jpg

Both of these types of mold are ubiquitous in the environment. Aspergillus tends to colonize continuously damp materials such as damp wallboard and fabrics. Penicillium is commonly found in house dust, wallpaper, decaying fabrics, moist clipboards, etc.



including Stachybotrys. Stachybotrys Chartarum and A conidium of Stachybotrys Black Mold 

colony of Stachybotrys . Stachybotrys Chartarum growing Stachybotrys is the bad boy of them all.

 There are some species in the Aspergillus family that are just as toxic as Stachybotrys such as Aspergillus Versicolor and Aspergillus Fumigatus.
The toxins produced can cause diarrhea and upset stomach. It is reported to be a kidney and liver carcinogen.

Aspergillus Fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Humans and animals constantly inhale numerous conidia of this fungus.  However, there has been a dramatic increase in severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis, now the most common mold infection worldwide.

 But when people talk about toxic black mold, Stachy is the one they're talking about.

 But remember, just because it is black, DOES NOT mean it's toxic!!

What is Stachybotrys?

Stachybotrys, commonly called "stachy," is a greenish-black, slimy mold found only on cellulose products (such as wood or paper) that have been wet for several days or more. The mold does not grow on concrete, linoleum or tile.

How is a person exposed to Stachybotrys?      

Stachybotrys and some other fungi may produce several toxic chemicals called mycotoxins. Mycotoxins can be present in spores and small mold fragments released into the air. Once the mold fragments, mycotoxins and spores are in the air, individuals may breathe them into their lungs.

What are the symptoms of exposure to Stachybotrys mycotoxins?

Symptoms of exposure to mycotoxins include coughing, wheezing, runny nose, irritated eyes or throat, skin rash and diarrhea.

Since these symptoms are general in nature, they also can be caused by a cold, influenza or exposure to other allergens. It is not known what level of mycotoxin from Stachybotrys must be present in the air to cause these symptoms.

In 1994, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) investigated whether exposure to Stachybotrys might be related to pulmonary hemorrhage, also known as bleeding lungs, in infants in Cleveland, Ohio. While the CDC initially concluded that there was a possible link between exposure to the mold and the condition, Stachybotrys was not found in the homes of seven children with bleeding lungs identified in the Chicago area between April 1992 and January 1995. A subsequent review of the Cleveland study by a group of CDC experts concluded that a link between exposure to Stachybotrys and bleeding lungs in infants was not proven.


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Comments (25)

Lesley Burton-Dallas
Turtle Clan Global - Stratford, CT
Environmental Consultant

Thanks for stopping by Josh!

Mar 11, 2011 01:22 AM

what is the Penicillium/Aspergillus

Jan 29, 2013 09:45 AM
Jhake Turner
Molds are a piece of the nature. In outside, molds have paramount impact in nature by breaking down dead natural matter, for example, fallen leaves and dead trees, and so forth. Anyway inside, mold development ought to be evaded and anticipated. Molds repeat by method for small spores; the spores are concealed to the exposed eye (just on magnifying lens) and buoy through open air and indoor air and sully zones. Mold may start to develop inside when mold spores arrive on surfaces that are wet or zones with dampness. There are numerous sorts of mold, and none of them will develop without water or dampness. Thus, dampness has extraordinary influence of it. They assault for the most part on sustenance yet they likewise strike non-nourishment things like cowhide, wood and porcelain. Do you recognize your hypersensitive responses are more regrettable when you're at home however you feel better when you go out? All things considered, need it. If so then it’s particularly likely you could have mold. Don't go tired of staying in one spot. Discover a path for mold detection
Apr 17, 2014 11:09 PM

i got ebola from mold i'd stay away. or maybe i got it from that obama fellow, i told my friends you can't trust a black man. if i was president i'd get rid of all this mold my word. wouldn't spend all my time playing basketball or be on the TV. then i'd reinvest our resources into schools and hospitals. our education levels are lower than canada's! canada for god sake! can't let those quakers outsmart us with their wagons and hockey sticks. next thing i'd do is put a higher tax on corporations, these bigwigs are practically getting away with whatever they want, raping my constitution. my third act as president would be to institute a bird tax. anyone with those unholy flying rats would be taxed to the fullest extent of the law, which will be up to but not excluding execution by firing squad.

Nov 17, 2014 11:02 AM


May 15, 2015 10:56 AM
Emily Marx

Hi Lesley,

I wanted to sincerely THANK YOU, from the bottom of my heart for answering Charles
question above with the protocol to see an Allergist who can test one's blood for
a specific type of fungus!!

My daughter has been extremely ill with the rare fungus:
Chaetomium Atrobrunneum. We have seen over 13 doctors, even Infectious Disease Dr.'s and not one of them was able to help identify her fungus via tests, skin cultures, etc. nothing.
Instead some of them wouldn't even offer a scripts for antibiotics and the some even accused her of having D.O.P. (Delusions of Parisitosis) even though she had open wounds all over her body!

Not one them mentioned an Allergist to have her blood tested,
but YOU did and now we know exactly what to do.
After one year of her quietly suffering with this, I feel we may be at the end of this
very difficult time in my daughters health and life!

Thank you again for your words as we now have some hope, for the first time ,
that we will get to the bottom of this, and she will be well once more.

Blessings on you and your family, Lesley!

Emily & Jessica Marx

May 19, 2015 01:03 PM

The urine mycotoxin panel is what one needs to have done as the values for mold showing up in the blood stream does not last as long. Find a Toxicologist, not an Allergist, who is familiar with mycotoxicosis, or mold illness.

Sep 28, 2015 02:16 AM

I'm looking for a lawyer my daughter was 3 months old when she passed away we slept downstairs cause we felt it was the safest way to keep an eye on her having her bassenett at the top of the basement steps n her diaper genie covering the smell of the 3 types of mold Aspergillus -cladosporium- n pemicillum she had the same symptoms that I read theses cause my husband was hospitaliezed 4 times for symptoms as well I also have had some symptoms since I've moved in this house. If anyone knows who could help us not let these slumlord scumbags get away with the death of our daughter you would be greatly appreciated n all evidence is documented

Oct 19, 2015 08:19 AM
Stephanie Ems

Not to make this all about me I apologize but if there's a lawyer out there that can help. the realtors office sent 2 state inspectors out here n they didn't do anything but walk downstairs n leave with an infant here with no hot water heater or electrical meter which still isn't here to this day. 1 outlet works in the house n none of the light switches they were paid off no question in my mind n it cost my daughter her life n my husband numerous trips to the er. If there's a lawyer willing to help we could use it Forever love Arya Queen Donnelly.

Oct 19, 2015 11:37 AM
Inna Ivchenko
Barcode Properties - Encino, CA
Realtor® • Green • GRI • HAFA • PSC Calabasas CA

It is true, plenty of mold kinds around us, but only few are toxic for us. It also depends how tolerant you are to the exposure. 

Nov 28, 2015 12:11 PM

pennicilum is a very dangreos mold

Mar 10, 2016 11:14 AM
Wendy Fighera

I live in jacksonville fl and just had house tested for mold. The results came back Bipolaris inside my house 1 raw count 10 count and 11.1%. It also has aspergillus/penicillium inside and outside and alot of other stuff that's alarming. What should we do.

Jul 24, 2016 03:09 AM
Shirley Wright

I am so saddened to still hear of all this misinformation out there. First of all, you do not have to be allergic to Toxic Mold to get sick...very sick. I'm talking fatal. Of course it depends on how long you were exposed and how bad the Toxic Mold. Some are worse than others. What ever you do, if you feel you are sick from the pathogens ( Poisons) that come from Toxic Mold, do NOT go to any Doctor that is not experienced...even if they say they know a little. No time to waste. You are going to get many inflammations, infections, and a compromised immune system. Taking any kind of anti-biotic can make you worse. Even steroids. Your liver will be in very bad shape, clogged up not knowing what to do with these micro-organisms. Also, don't get hung up on the fungi thing. You can have a negative test for fungus which doesn't mean a darn thing. The fungus is now something else. Mycotoxins, Biotoxins, Endotoxins.......and if you leave the environment where you were exposed and are still getting sick, it could be that this nasty stuff has set up home, usually in your sinusis, and just keeps reproducing and reproducing. All while eventually affecting every single part of your body. Your body will begin feeding off your body. Your immune system does not have a clue what it even is so it just might think that it's something good. Once in your blood stream, it's controlling your entire body. You will have some real diagnosis and some that are not. You can get cancer, tumors, cysts, bones growing where they shouldn't, veins/arteries clogged, a lot of pain...everywhere. Then there is the brain. The most devastating to me. Your thinking begins to change, your personality is different, some people (usually more males) go into rages, fits of anger that would scare anyone. Deep depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts, affecting the frontal lobe so poor reasoning, memory loss, tremors, twitching, jerking, hearing loss because they are hangin out in your ears also. Vision loss. Nasty slimy stuff in your mouth and sometimes a white coated tongue and dental issues. All you can do is DETOX. Learn exactly how to do this for it to be affective and start it as soon as possible. If you can. You can really speed up the process with IV Therapy or Chelation Therapy. You need to get a lot of stuff out of your body and a Lot of stuff back in. No Joke....It is not easy to get rid of. It takes a serious regimen. From then on your life will be all organic. No chemicals anywhere. You may even become what they call chemical sensitive where you can have a reaction to many odors, perfumes, cleaning agents, even deodorants....any type of chemical at all. God Bless those suffering, learn what is right from the beginning. Try not to waste time. Of course, Like myself, I am in the very advanced stages, lesions inside of me, cysts, disease of my spine, chronic pain and so on and so on because I cannot afford the treatment, nor is there one doctor in my city that has a clue of what's going on with me. I will have to try and start getting my binders, supplements, nutrients, vitamins slowly as I get the money. I'm already 65 years old so it just may be that maybe God wants me to try and help, at least, one person from this horrible illness. AND, PS.....please go after anyone that may be responsible for you being sick because of their neglect and/or lack of concern. God be with you and yours. Shirl

Oct 15, 2016 09:28 PM
Shirley Wright

Dear Oliver, Home inspection or remediation? Spores do not really need to be airborne to become very ill. For instance, Chaetomium, one Toxic Mold that can be very bad. ( it inhibits cell division) has spores that are quite a bit heavier...than others. They settle in carpet, furniture, clothes, blankets, etc. The "IAQ" test can be very low in spore count but that does not mean that it does not get in your body in other ways. If you have fruit sitting out, your're going to eat them. Just sitting on your couch or a chair, they can fly up and you inhale them. Also, animals.....huge carriers all over the house. If you have a rug.... every time you vacuum, you are being exposed. They also can get through your skin. I mean no disrespect but Toxic Mold Spores do not HAVE to be airborne. But with that said, Toxic Mold grows where there is water damage. In my case, it was growing all inside the drywall around our HVAC and everywhere under our carpet in the apartment unit we were living in. Those spores came blowing out our air vents every time they went on and then settled right down in the carpet and area rugs that I shook out as I cleaned.

Oct 15, 2016 09:53 PM

Would high blood levels of aspergillus fumigatus always be associated with indoor exposure? I know someone with a level of 31.6. Normal is supposed to be 0.0 - 1.9.

Feb 11, 2017 08:13 PM

I am looking for more info on chaetomium. Can you site any of your sources? Thank you!

Feb 13, 2017 11:56 AM

If someone is diagnosed with black mold in their lungs. How long is the incubation period once they where exposed? Also is penicillium and black mold the same think?

Apr 05, 2017 07:35 PM

What types for cancer can Chaetomium casuse?

Aug 05, 2017 09:44 AM
Teresa McCormick

I had two thirds of my attic covered with Chaetomium not reported by my home inspector because Washington State said that this soft rot fungus which rots wood had no structural concerns. Yes it is on the web today under Washington Department of Agriculture Mold Guidance Policy credit to Jeff Morrell. I developed both breast cancer and melanoma. In the ducts there was Penicillin brevicompactum which produces the immunosuppressant Cell Cept which has as a side effect skin cancer and melanoma. There is also a support group of patients who have taken this drug also called mycophenolate who have breast cancer. Washington State has the highest rate of breast cancer and melanoma in the nation. It is an example of how our government supports big business over human health.

Oct 01, 2017 05:49 PM
Paul W. Ayers

I can understand about Theresa McCormick's situation...I had rented a house in North Central Washington State and lived with my family in this house long term..We experienced a situation where we needed answers and solutions along with the much needed Medical and Analytical we were all getting blasted with Not just Chaetomium and Stachybotris, but with Friable Asbestos that was present and airborne in the house.The steps needed to prove with no shadow of doubt that these Molds along with the Friable Asbestos affected many.. and many people do not know what is required to have proper Medical documentation, but what happens when you do have documentation along with the required Analytical evidence backed up with Photographic/Video evidence.. ??The landlord had hired a Asbestos contractor to come into the rental house and pull PCM Asbestos air tests, and to document the findings, Strangely enough I caught them red handed intent with the falsification of Asbestos Inspections/ reports and Mold reports.. including a photo that I caught of them pointing up at a Asbestos laden piping damaged and hanging dangerously..But within a few short hours, I had copied their air tests... but with the major addition of TEM airborne asbestos analysis and Mold Samples collected. Locations Photographed to back up the claims...all certified by Asbestos Chain of Custody record, Biological Chain of Custody records,yes indeed Federally Registered Documents proving that the contractors lied about the Inspections and the Federal Crime of Falsification of Asbestos Inspections and Reports..These Agencies in Washington state, DEQ, WISHA, WA Labor and Industries, Local City / County Building Inspectors Along with the EPA was notified along with many others of the houses conditions, yet each Agency Passed the Buck, claiming that they had " No Jurisdiction"..Even though the proof positive without any Shadow of Doubt was overwhelming that these Asbestos Contractors along with a Senior Insurance Adjuster came in to purposely to commit Fraud and hide the facts that the house was unsatisfactory and to hide my complaints of Mold and Asbestos issues within the home.. still they operate with no fines.. loss of business license removed and the insurance agent was praised for his efforts..Meanwhile the renter's Health issues caused by the Molds have not received any medical documentation, nor has the asbestos exposures...why doctors? It's been extremely difficult especially when you present the documents proving Exposure to the Physicians and they look at you and refuse to pay attention to the Certified findings...Catch 22... what happens when you place the case file on your US Senator Murray's desk, they too put on the running shoes and aid the Ultra Hazardous Criminal Activities and leave the renter's Health in harm's way..?What would you do to help your family and Communities?I also posted the video evidence to YouTube, yet it seems that no one can comment, why?

Oct 11, 2017 09:24 AM