I was helping a potential buyer trying to decide what community they wanted to live and the question was posed - "If a community has an HOA, does it stop in 20 years, or when does the HOA stop making rules for those homeowners?"
GOOD QUESTION, and one I did not have an immediate answer for. I found out they are permanently in place.
However, there is no blanket answer for all questions either, as it differs with every HOA and will spell it out in the governing documents. You will find this information in the Declarations which is usually written by the builders or developers per development. In these declarations, it will also state how to modify or resolve any HOA issues. The declarations is the Bible and prevail over bylaws or regulations. The rules and regs will spell out what you can and cannot do in your neighborhood.
However, this is not as easy as it sounds. It will spell out the exact procedure to follow, but will take a 2/3 supermajority to change anything in the declarations.
In a detached housing community, the HOA is responsible for the grounds maintenance of entries and common areas, perimeter fencing, and trash collection. In a multi-family complex (condos & townhomes) there are other items to include - pools, tennis courts, exterior building and roofing, insurance, water/sewer, snow removal, trash and grounds maintenance.
Unless there is severe action taken by homeowners in a detached home community, you most likely will have a governing body (HOA) in a community permanently.